The duel between *champions was introduced into England by the Normans; before then the Church in England had sufficient authority to prevent it. The duellum was the final recourse of two sides unable to resolve an argument. (This civil duel was far from the duel of honour, which persisted in Europe until the 19c.) Abbeys were not averse to hiring a champion; some even paid a man a nominal retainer to stay on the books. Tirones were also used for such occasions. The champion would have agreed a contract with his employer - this after the 12c, when champions were supposed to be witnesses of the cause they fought for. Such drastic solutions were a last resort in the certainty that God would not permit the party with justice on its side to lose. Thus the duellum was a judicium Dei, an ordeal subject to God's judgement. For a champion to be killed was not unknown; however, after * ictus regis, the sides might come to an agreement to end the duel (concordia per finem duelli) before bloodshed or loss of life. Eventually, all came to agree duels were unseemly and undignified, for both churchmen and laymen. By the 14c, all such civil disputes were being settled in the courts of law. -

Dictionary of Medieval Terms and Phrases. .

Look at other dictionaries:

  • duellum — /d(y)uwebm/ The trial by battel or judicial combat. See battel …   Black's law dictionary

  • duellum — A duel …   Ballentine's law dictionary

  • vadiare duellum — /vsediyeriy d(y)uwelam/ L. Lat. In old English law, to wage or gage the duellum; to wage battle; to give pledges mutually for engaging in the trial by combat …   Black's law dictionary

  • facere duellum — to make the duel, or make or do battle; …   Black's law dictionary

  • vadiare duellum — To wage battel; to engage in trial by combat …   Ballentine's law dictionary

  • duel — 1. duel [ dɥɛl ] n. m. • 1539; lat. duellum, forme archaïque de bellum « guerre » 1 ♦ Anciennt Combat entre deux adversaires armés (combat singulier). « Le vainqueur offrit le duel au nouveau roi » (Bossuet). ♢ Duel judiciaire : combat singulier… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Duell — Zweikampf * * * Du|ell [du ɛl], das; s, e: Zweikampf: jmdn. zum Duell fordern. * * * Du|ẹll 〈n. 11〉 1. 〈früher〉 mit Waffen ausgeführter Zweikampf 2. 〈Sp.〉 Wettkampf zw. zwei Sportlern, Mannschaften 3. Streitgespräch zw. zwei Personen ● die… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • DUELLI Judicium — ad veri probationem introductum, quo ambiguas controversias mediae aevo ditimi mos fuit, a Septentrionalibus populis traxit originem. Apud quos, cum ab initio iam in usu esset, armis lites suas decernere, ait Vell. Patercul. praesertim id… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • duel — DUÉL, dueluri, s.n. Luptă care se desfăşoară (după un anumit cod) între două persoane înarmate, în prezenţa unor martori şi care are drept scop tranşarea unui diferend personal. ♦ Luptă în care artileriile celor două armate inamice trag simultan… …   Dicționar Român

  • ДУЭЛЬ — (франц. duel, лат. duellum, от bellurn война). Поединок. Словарь иностранных слов, вошедших в состав русского языка. Чудинов А.Н., 1910. ДУЭЛЬ поединок между 2 мя противниками, в угоду общественному мнению, полагающему, что в некоторых случаях… …   Словарь иностранных слов русского языка

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